吉野托儿所和幼儿园
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项目名称 Project Name:吉野托儿所和幼儿园 / Yoshino Nursery School and Kindergarten

参展机构 Company : 手塚建築研究所 / Tezuka Architects

客户 Client :Sakuragi-kai

创作年份 Year :2015

设计师 Designer :Tezuka Architects

摄影 Photographer :Katsuhisa Kida/FOTOTECA 

 

 

项目创作背景

Project Background

 

项目名称:吉野保育园和幼儿园

地点:日本青森县陆奥市

占地面积:2975.00㎡

建筑面积:1004.84㎡

总建筑面积:862.15㎡

完工日期:2015年9月

 

陆奥是一个非常美丽的地方。在下北半岛的每个角落都美丽无比,因此,陆奥特有的魅力已经是其居民日常生活的一部分。陆奥有许多迷人的风景,但是我觉得最引人注目的是其海岸线向远处山脉延伸的形状。

 

吉野保育园的椭圆形屋顶,其优美的曲线仅在其最南端触及地面,与下北半岛的海岸线相呼应。从地面上,孩子们就可以踩到屋顶并爬到顶部。稍微用些力气,还可以把轮椅也推到以1:12比例的缓坡屋顶。屋顶坡度仅为8%,不超过常规道路的坡度。然而这个小斜坡可以激发儿童奔跑的欲望,即使是那些在平地上没什么玩耍动力的孩子。父母们发现他们刚刚开始学习走路的孩子在第一次踏上这个倾斜的表面时:脸上会泛起惊喜的表情,摇摆着小腿蹒跚前进。在自然界中,完全水平的地面是非常罕见的,斜坡会更加自然。

 

Project Name: Yoshino Nursery School and Kindergarten

Location: Mutsu, Aomori Prefecture, Japan

Site area: 2975.00m2

Building area: 1004.84m2

Total floor area: 862.15m2

Completion Date: 2015.9

 

Mutsu is an exceptionally beautiful place. Beauty is found in every nook and cranny of the Shimokita Peninsula so the particular charm of Mutsu is part of its inhabitants’ everyday life. The town is charming in many ways, but what I found particularly striking was the shape of the coastline as it sweeps up toward the faraway mountains.

 

The elliptical roof of Yoshino Nursery School, with graceful curves that touch the ground only at its very southern end, echoes that of the Shimokita coastline. At the ground-level point, it is possible to step onto the roof and climb to the top. With some effort, even a wheelchair can ascend the roof’s gentle 1:12 incline. The incline is only 8 percent, no more than that of regular roads. Even this minor slope elicits a positive response from the children. Children who are not inspired to move when on ground level suddenly begin to run about. Parents will know what happens when children who are just learning to walk step onto a slanting surface for the first time: their faces light up, and they toddle right ahead on wobbly little legs. In the natural world, perfectly flat surfaces are actually very rare. Slopes are much more natural.

 

 

项目问题与解决方式

Problem Statement and Project Solution

 

在我们参与设计吉野保育园的初期,访问了沿大畑火车线种植的,作为轨道防护屏障的树林。多年来,森林中的树木已经长得很高大。然而伐木和准备建设用的木材在当时太过困难,不能就地取材用于幼儿园的建设。虽然不能使用当地的树木,但是幼儿园从一开始就计划被建成一座木建筑,全部结构完全由木材制成。作为建筑材料,木材会随着时间的推移变得更加优雅。在当下这个钢结构和钢筋混凝土的时代,木材听起来只像一个便宜的替代品。然而,在整个历史中,木结构已经被证明是非常具有适应性的。在奈良,著名的千年建筑都是木制的。近期,具有历史性的建筑也几乎是由木材制成的。然而,可以持续一百多年的钢筋混凝土建筑几乎不存在。利用现代建筑技术,构建能够承受几乎任何类型地震的木制建筑不再是梦想。但木质结构真正的亮点,是他们裸露在外的建筑材料。与钢或钢筋混凝土不同,木材的手感温暖宜人。孩子们会因为材料良好的触感而爬上木制的柱子,但他们永远不会对冷钢或混凝土做同样的事情。木材也会随着时间变得更加迷人几百只小手会在上面留下痕迹,好像材料本身记录着历史。

 

Our involvement with Yoshino Nursery School began when we visited the forest that had been planted along the local Ōhata train line in order to shield the tracks from the elements. Over many years, the trees in the forest had grown tall and strong. Unfortunately, they could not be used for the construction of the nursery school because logging and preparing the trees for construction would have been too difficult at the time. Although it proved impossible to use local trees, the nursery was planned as a wooden building from the start. The structure of the building is made entirely of wood. As a building material, wood is both new, and as old as time. In these days of steel frames and reinforced concrete, wood sounds like a cheap alternative at best. Throughout history, however, wooden structures have proved to be remarkably resilient. The famous thousand-year-old buildings in Nara are all made of wood. More recent historical buildings are virtually all made of wood as well. Meanwhile, it is literally impossible to find a reinforced concrete building that has lasted over a hundred years. With modern-day building techniques, constructing wooden buildings that can withstand almost any earthquake is no longer a dream. But the beauty of wooden structures really shines when their building materials are left exposed. Unlike steel or reinforced concrete, wood is warm and pleasant to the touch. Children will climb wooden pillars because the material feels so nice. They would never do the same with cold steel or concrete. Wooden pillars also age beautifully, absorbing the marks left by hundreds of little hands as if the material itself is recording its own history.

 

 

创作过程&结果呈现

Creation Process & Result

 

幼儿园的屋顶向南倾斜,相较于完全水平的屋顶而言,整个表面会更加温暖。屋顶1:12的坡度不超过4.5度角,但是这个角度足以使屋顶捕获更多来自太阳的热量。倾斜的表面也更方便使用者坐下。当坐在倾斜的表面上时,人们总是将他们的脚朝向低的一端。这听起来像一个非常显而易见的事情,但这种“显而易见”的事情会使孩子们跟他们的伙伴围坐在一起,这是多么可爱的场景。在冬季,斜坡还会鼓励孩子们在雪地里玩耍。初雪后,城里满溢着孩子们坐雪橇时欢乐的叫声。

 

建筑通过地板的“暖炕”系统供暖。人类从古罗马时期就知道这种古老的技术。暖空气在地板下吹送,从地面下加热。“暖炕”使用空气加热的一个好处是它可以比水更快地预热房间。与电加热不同,“暖炕”系统不涉及升高有形加热器的温度,避免了儿童被烫手的危险。该系统使用热泵作为热源,将制造的热量迁移到较冷的部分,以加热不同的空间。相较于锅炉,“暖炕”系统对环境和用户更加友好。

 

The roof slopes down toward the south, making the whole surface slightly warmer than it would be if the roof were level. The roof’s 1:12 incline makes for no more than a 4.5-degree angle, but it is this angle that helps the roof catch about as much warmth from the sun as one would feel in Utsunomiya. Sloping surfaces are also easy to sit down on. When sitting on a sloping surface, people always put their feet towards the lower end. This sounds like a very self-evident thing to mention, but this “obvious” behavior results in adorable scenes of children sitting together with their friends. Slopes also encourage children to play in the snow in winter. After the first snow has fallen, the town rings with the happy shouts of children sledding.

 

The building is insulated by the ‘ondol’ system of underfloor heating. Humans have known this ancient technique since the time of ancient Rome. Warm air is blown under the floors, heating from the underside up. One benefit of ‘ondol’ heating is that it can warm up a room faster than water heating. Unlike electrical heating, the ‘ondol’ system does not involve warming any part of a tangible heater, eliminating the risk of burning children’s hands. The system uses heat pumps as a source of heat. A heat pump moves excess heat out of a colder space to warm a different space. Compared to a boiler that has to use energy to generate the heat necessary to warm a room, the ‘ondol’ system is more environmentally and user friendly.

 

 

如何理解项目与“人文湾区∙温暖的设计”这一主题的关联性?

How does the project reflect the exhibition theme ‘Cultural Bay Area • Humanistic Design’ ?

 

幼儿园的屋顶是椭圆形的,没有起点,也不存在终点。孩子们喜欢傻头傻脑地奔跑在这种没有尽头的圆形空间内。在这里,他们像小狗追逐自己的尾巴一样玩耍几个小时的时间。对于他们来说一圈一圈的奔跑,是与生俱来能力,而不是后天习得的。儿童会依照某些特定的模式移动,如果他们所在的环境能够适应这些模式,不需要任何提示,孩子们便会自发的开始探索。所有家长都会慢慢发现:他们的孩子喜欢没有终点的环形线路。另外一所大名鼎鼎的幼儿园,富士幼儿园,位于东京的立川,它虽然没有吉野幼儿园这样可供吹嘘的倾斜屋顶,但是富士幼儿园的孩子们却以乐于体能锻炼而闻名。仅仅一个上午的时间,这里的孩子就平均奔跑四公里之多。然而,在大多数育婴设施中,儿童仅仅跑动约800米。这就意味着富士幼儿园学生的运动量有普通儿童的五倍。

 

吉野幼儿园的屋顶覆盖着软橡胶。在孩子们仍在学习如何平衡身体的阶段,他们经常摔倒。摔倒时造成的擦伤并不是个严重的问题; 事实上,它们也是学习的一部分。但是为了防止进一步的伤害,仍然需要采用严谨的设计。在这个时代,成年人,特别是父母,会尽一切努力保护他们的宝贝免受伤害。然而,当孩子受到过度的保护时,会错过重要的学习机会。吉野幼儿园的屋顶更像是一个训练器械,让孩子们在安全的环境中接受小小的挑战。

 

The roof of the nursery school is an ellipse. An ellipse has no beginning, and especially no end. Children adore spaces where they can run in endless circles, with no particular goal in mind. In this, they are much like puppies who chase their own tails for hours; the need to run around and around is part of a child’s collective memory, something they are born with, not taught. Children move according to certain patterns. If their environment is adapted to those patterns, children will start to move about naturally, without any prompting. Children adore circuits that never end; any parent will have had the opportunity to find this out. Fuji Kindergarten is located in Tachikawa, a town that is part of Tokyo. It does not have the sloping roof that Yoshino Nursery School can boast, but the children who attend Fuji Kindergarten are nonetheless known for their aptitude in physical exercise. During the morning period alone, the children walk and run a total distance of four kilometers on average. Meanwhile, in most nursery facilities, children run about 800 meters. This means that students at Fuji Kindergarten run five times more than the average child.

 

In addition, the roof of the school is covered with soft rubber. While children are still learning how to balance their bodies, they often fall over. A fall resulting in a few scrapes is not a problem; indeed, it is part of the learning process. However, thoughtful planning is needed to prevent further injuries. In current times, adults, notably parents, do everything to keep the precious children from getting hurt. When children are overly protected, however, they miss out on chances for crucial learning moments. The roof of Yoshino Nursery School is a training instrument where children are gently challenged in a safe environment.